General Information on Ozone Water Treatment
Ozone eliminates the color caused by iron, manganese and carbonous substances. It also eliminates odors and flavors due to the organic materials present.
Ozone reduces cloudiness (solids in suspension) and the chemical and biological demands of oxygen. It can also eliminate detergents and other non-biodegradable surface-active substances. The degree of elimination will depend on the amount of ozone used.
Ozone is a powerful disinfectant. It not only kills the pathogenic bacteria but also inactivates viruses and other micro-organisms that are not sensitive to ordinary chlorine disinfection.
Ozonization is less expensive than super-chlorination followed by a dechlorination and costs the same as ordinary chlorination.
As a tertiary treatment of secondary effluents, ozonization is considerably cheaper than using activated carbon.
Provided no further contamination is introduced after treatment the ozone residue is sufficient to carry out any required sanitation.
Ozone is detectable before reaching any intoxicating level.
Ozone does not cause the increase in inorganic salts nor are harmful byproducts found in water after treatment.
Applications of Ozone in Water
Applications of Ozone in Water
Disinfection of bottled water
Ozone is a cost effective disinfecting agent for bottled water. Ozone is used in water treatment for its oxidative qualities. Second only to fluorine in electronegative oxidation potential, ozone will oxidize both organic and inorganic substances; remove unwanted taste, odor and color; and provide effective disinfection. Ozone is extremely efficient as a bactericide, fungicide and viricide, killing even chlorine-resistant Cryptosporidium. It is also used for oxidation and removal of heavy metals such as iron and manganese. It will enable water bottlers to deliver a product that is free from bacteria and viruses, thereby extending the shelf life and product quality of the bottled water. As a result of increasing health awareness, this is a rapidly growing market, and the use of ozone for bottled
water can be marketed extensively.
Disinfection of bottled water
Hydroponics and irrigation water
Because ozone is such an effective oxidant to treat water for hydroponic and irrigation applications, many farmers have implemented ozone systems on their farms. The hydroponic farmers in particular are a very close community and therefore the technology is and has been spread by word of mouth. Fieldwork on hydroponic farms has shown that the success of ozone treatment is directly related to the volume of water in a recirculating system, the flow rate, and the number of plants the system supports. The hydroponics and greenhouse industries have been utilizing ozone generators very successfully for years to reduce pollen, mold, viruses, bacteria, air pollution, etc. Ozone creates a much healthier environment resulting in higher profits and lower maintenance costs. There is great opportunity to market this technology.
Hydroponics and irrigation water
Cooling tower water treatment
Cooling tower performance can be seriously affected by biofouling, corrosion and scale buildup. In addition the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the cooling tower water such as legionella, has become a major health issue. To protect the cooling tower operation from each of these potential hazards, a number of chemicals are used. When the use of ozone in cooling towers was first proposed there were claims that ozone could act as a 'stand alone' process. This would imply that after installing the ozone system an operator could do away with all other chemical additives because the ozone would control corrosion, scale formation and microbial growth. Although this claim may be true for certain applications, ozone is now frequently used in conjunction with both corrosion and scale inhibitors. Ozone is a powerful disinfectant, and for certain microorganisms is several times more potent than chlorine. The effectiveness of ozone as a disinfectant in comparison with chlorine and many other biocides is due to the manner in which ozone attacks cells. Most disinfectants pass into the microbial cell before disrupting the functioning of the cell. However, ozone directly breaks down the microbial cell wall by oxidation. This action results in the rapid death of the microorganism. Ozone is many times more effective as a disinfectant in comparison with
Many times, aesthetics are the only problem preventing the use of groundwater for potable purposes. Although typically used as disinfectant, ozone offers the benefits of being a strong oxidizing agent. Due to its oxidizing power, ozone is used successfully to reduce aesthetically unpleasant color, taste and odor.
Ozone can be used in dairies as a gas that sterilizes the air, or in ozonized water as a safer alternative to chlorinated water. Ozone is much more effective than routine cleaning methods. Swabs were taken from food processing tables, warehouses or area after routine cleaning with a chemical cleaning solution, and compared with swabs taken from an ozonated area. These tests show that ozone has a kill rate of 100%. Bacterial counts after routine cleaning methods showed their ineffectiveness in the prevention of cross-contamination and spoilage. Ozonated water has been shown as an effective alternative to chlorinated water in the disinfection of dairy equipment. Not only does it effectively destroy surface-attached bacteria, but requires no heat, and therefore uses less energy than sanitizing systems which use steam or hot water.
Small water treatment plants
Water, when untreated, often contains undesirable sediments, unwanted colors, and residual tastes and odors which may be successfully removed by treatment with ozone. Treatment of drinking water with ozone disinfects the water by killing bacteria and inactivating viruses present in the water. In addition to this, the oxidative properties of ozone are useful for the following purposes:
• Oxidation of iron and manganese
• Color removal
• Taste and odor removal
• Algae control
• Oxidation of cyanides
• Oxidation of Sulfides
• Oxidation of Nitrites
• Oxidation/Removal of Arsenic
• Coagulation Assistance
The amounts of ozone applied for water treatment depend on a number of factors:
• The purpose(s) for which ozone is applied
• The number of applications points in the treatment train
• The degree of contamination of the raw water to be treated
• The ozone demand of the water at the point(s) of treatment
• The temperature and pH of the water being ozonated
Processing of fish, meat, chicken, fruit and vegetables
The wide ranging possibilities for using ozone in the food industry and agriculture as well as in other fields, are created by its bacterial and germ killing power. Not only does it act as a germicide but as a spore-killing agent as well. A panel of experts from food science, ozone technology and other related fields granted Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status for ozone use in food processing. This GRAS status allows food processors to use ozone in their washing, handling and packaging processes. Ozonization is recommended from the first processing point, throughout cutting, packaging and transport including the point prior to consumption. Specialized applications include:
• Poultry processing
• Sanitizing packaging material
• Fruit and vegetable washing
• Washing of carcasses
• Increasing the storage life of perishable foods
Surface disinfection: crate and container washing and bottle sterilization
A great potential for ozone is in bottling plants for the sanitization of bottles prior to filling. The sanitizing properties of ozone are obtained nearly instantly, and no unwanted byproducts are produced. The unit rinses bottles with four times the concentration of ozone water that is needed to kill bacteria, viruses, spores and algae. All of this is done without leaving unwanted soap residues, tastes or odors in the bottle. Another application in this field is for sanitizing fill lines and vessels. These are treated with ozone-containing water after shift shutdown. The next day the lines are clean and safe to drain, as the ozone has disappeared. Another popular application of ozone is for crate and container washing. Shipping and container companies spend vast amounts of money on chemicals to clean, disinfect and deodorize large containers. A direct ozone spray system makes it easy to wash containers, crates, barrels and tanks, clean walls and floors, and sanitize drains using ozonated water. Advantages of this method include:
It saves time on heat up and cool down processes and saves hot water wear and tear on equipment.
Will save time and money because using ozone reduces hot water usage, thus reducing energy consumption.
Dissolved ozone is less harmful than hot water on gaskets (no noticeable deterioration of gaskets).
Reduces harsh chemical/chlorine use.
Dissolved ozone is not harmful to the environment.
Dissolved ozone is a better sanitizer than chlorine.
Ozone is a strong, powerful, scientifically proven oxidizer.
Dissolved ozone is safer than chlorine or sulfur dioxide.
Ozone kills all know bacteria, viruses, mold, spores, yeast, mildew and fungus faster than hot water or chlorine.
Microorganisms cannot build up a tolerance to ozone as they can (and do) to chlorine.
Safe for multiple surfaces.